Accelerated pace (tachyphrenia) – thinking is superficial, thoughts flow quickly, easily replace each other. It is characterized by increased distraction, patients constantly jump to other topics. Speech accelerated, loud. Statements are interspersed with poetic phrases, singing. Associations between thoughts are superficial, but they are still understandable.

The most pronounced degree of accelerated thinking is the leap of ideas {fuga idiorum). There are so many thoughts that the patient does not have time to utter them, incomplete phrases are characteristic, speech is excitable..

Mentalism is a subjective feeling when there is a mass of thoughts in the head that are not related to each other. This is a short-term condition. In contrast to accelerated thinking, it is an extremely painful condition for the patient. The symptom is characteristic of the Kandinsky-clerambault syndrome.

The slow pace (bradyphrenia). Thoughts are hard to come up with and stay in the mind for a long time. Slowly replace one another. Speech is quiet, poor in words, answers are delayed, phrases are short. Subjectively, patients describe that thoughts, appearing, overcome resistance, ” turn like stones.” Patients consider themselves intellectually incompetent, stupefied. The most severe form of slow thinking is monoideism, when a single thought is held in the patient’s mind for a long time. Sperung-breaks of thoughts, “blockage of thinking”, the patient suddenly loses thought. Most often, the experiences are subjective and may not be noticeable in speech. In severe cases, sudden cessation of speech.

Slipping thinking is a deviation, slipping reasoning into side thoughts, the thread of reasoning is lost.

Fragmentation of thinking. In this disorder, there is a loss of logical connections between individual thoughts. Speech becomes incomprehensible, and the grammatical structure of speech is preserved.

The disorder is characteristic of a distant stage of schizophrenia.

For incoherent (incoherent) thinking, the complete loss of logical connections between individual short statements and individual words is characteristic ,and speech loses grammatical correctness. The disorder occurs when consciousness is disturbed.

Reasonableness – empty, fruitless, vague reasoning, not filled with a specific meaning. Verbiage. It is noted in schizophrenia.

Autistic thinking – reasoning is based on the patient’s subjective attitudes, desires, fantasies, and delusions.

Often there are neologisms – words invented by the patient himself.

Symbolic thinking – patients give special meaning to random objects, turning them into special symbols. Their content is not clear to others.

Paralogical thinking – reasoning with “curve logic”, based on the comparison of random facts and events. Typical of paranoid syndrome.

Duality (ambivalence) – the patient claims and denies the same fact at the same time, often found in schizophrenia.