Attraction – a need that arises as an unconscious desire for something. Disorders of the instincts are manifested by their weakening, strengthening and perversion.
Food craving disorders (eating disorders)
Anorexia – a decrease or lack of attraction to food with a loss of hunger. There is a nervous anorexia, in the form of an obsessive desire to lose weight, observed mainly in girls. Anorexia nervosa is caused by the presence of dysmorphophobic, dysmorphomanic experiences or hysterical personality disorders. In psychogenic (mental) anorexia, the reason for refusing to eat is psychopathological disorders.
Polyphagia (bulimia, gluttony) – excessive attraction to food. It is found in dementia, schizophrenia, mania and endocrine disorders.
Perversion of the food drive (eating inedible, paraphagia, picacism) – the desire to eat inedible: earth, coal, feces (coprophagia), chalk.
Disorders of the desire for life
Self-torture – the desire to inflict beatings, to cause bodily suffering. It is usually observed in melancholic raptus, abstinence, delusional states.
Self-mutilation (self – harm, self-mutilation) – self-inflicted injuries, severe injuries. The most severe self-harm is inflicted by mentally ill people in a state of alcoholic delirium and schizophrenia. The disorder is also found in psychopathies, reactive states.
Self-harm can be of a rental (installation) nature, when a person seeks to benefit from it.
Suicide is a deliberate, deliberate act aimed at voluntarily taking one’s own life. When analyzing the motives of suicide, there are several types of suicide:
1) Ostentatious suicide – actions aimed at attracting the attention of others to one’s own person. Suicide is a means of influencing a person to an unfavorable situation. It is found in hysteria, prison psychoses. Always done in plain sight;
2) Affectogenic suicide – committed under the influence of a strong affect, is a kind of form of affective discharge;
3) True suicide – suicidomania – the desire to commit suicide, repeated repetition of suicidal attempts. It is most typical for patients with MDR in the depressive phase, with schizophrenia;
4) Rational suicide – suicide committed by a mentally healthy person, usually carried out in the presence of an incurable somatic disease. Suicide is seen as the only means of getting rid of suffering.
PERVERSION OF THE INSTINCT OF PRESERVATION (CONTINUATION) OF THE GENUS
Hypoeroticism – hyposexuality – weakening, lowering of sexual desire. It is observed in asthenia, depression, when taking neuroleptic drugs.
Hypereroticism – hypersexuality – increased libido. It is noted in patients with organic pathology, with manic syndrome.
Perversions – perversion of the sexual desire. This includes any sexual deviations from the sexual norm (according to the ICD-10: pairing, heterosexuality, puberty, voluntary communication, etc.).
Sexual identification disorders
Transsexualism – the feeling of oneself and the attribution of oneself to the opposite sex, usually accompanied by the desire to change one’s appearance.
Double-role transvestism – limited to wearing clothing of the opposite sex, patients tend to be temporarily recognized as persons of the opposite sex.
Sexual identification disorder in childhood. It is manifested by the refusal to wear women’s clothing, imitation of boyish behavior (refusal to urinate sitting), statements about belonging to the opposite sex. To make a diagnosis, it is necessary to have this disorder for more than six months.
Disorders of sexual preference
Homosexuality (excluded from ICD-10) – attraction to persons of the same sex. It can be combined with attraction to the opposite sex (bisexuality). Patients do not seek to change their gender.
Fetishism – some inanimate object is the object of sexual attraction (sexual symbolism). Most often, the object of sexual attraction is the details of the toilet.
Fetishistic transvestism – dressing up in clothes of the opposite sex, associated with sexual arousal. After sexual satisfaction, there is a strong desire to take off the clothes of the opposite sex.
Exhibitionism – sexual arousal occurs when showing their genitals to others, random passers-by, often accompanied by masturbation.
Voyeurism – the tendency to peek at people during sexual or intimate activities, which is combined with sexual arousal and masturbation. There is no desire to have sexual relations with the object of observation.
Pedophilia – sexual attraction manifests itself to children of pre-puberty age.
Sadomasochism – sexual arousal occurs as a result of causing (or testing) pain and humiliation. It can manifest itself in its purest form as sadism, as masochism, and as a mixed form of perversion-sadomasochism.
Multiple disorders of sexual preference-a combination of several sexual deviations (fetishism, transvestism, frotterism) is characteristic.