Hyperkinesias include various violent automatic movements due to involuntary muscle contraction and a state of psychomotor agitation as an extremely pronounced increase in mental and motor activity.
Manic (simple) arousal is caused by a painfully elevated mood, in light forms the movements are interconnected, logical and correct, the behavior retains purposefulness, accompanied by loud accelerated speech. In severe cases, the movements lose their logic.
Hysterical psychomotor agitation is always provoked by something, increases as it attracts the attention of others, always demonstratively. The movements and statements are marked by theatricality, mannerism.
Hebephrenic arousal is accompanied by an increased mood background with a hint of foolishness. Facial expressions and movements are mannered, pretentious, actions are ridiculous. The behavior is meaningless, manic excitement in this case, laughter and jokes are not contagious.
Hallucinatory (hallucinatory-delusional) arousal reflects the content of hallucinatory (or delusional) experiences. Patients are emotional (experiencing fear or joy), the behavior of patients is characteristic (patients laugh, wave their hands or hide, escape from someone, shake something off).
Dyskinesia is very closely related to the pathology of the will. Therefore, they are often considered together as part of the catatonic syndrome.
Effector oneiroid catatonia. It is characterized by manifestations of passive negativism in combination with a change in consciousness, more often in the form of an oneiroid. In oneiroid catatonic stupor, scene-like hallucinatory images unfold in front of the patient. The face is often marked by a frozen expression of surprise. Memories of the disorder are fragmentary or absent altogether. Catatonic stupor can last for several years.
Catatonic arousal. Occurs suddenly. The actions performed are impulsive, inconsistent, and not motivated by anything. The actions performed are characterized by stereotypy – a monotonous, looped repetition of the same movements and gestures. Frequently observed ecocinema – echolalia, echopraxia. Speech is often completely incoherent, accompanied by monotonous statements (verbigeration). Patients answer the questions asked at random. Arousal is often accompanied by various affective manifestations (ecstasy, anger, rage).
Catatonic syndrome is most often found in schizophrenia, but it also occurs in exogenous (traumatic, infectious, toxic) psychoses. Catatonic disorders are typical for patients under the age of 50 years. In children, motor stereotypes are more often noted – running from wall to wall, running in a circle (“arena running”).