MOTOR DISORDERS (PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDERS)
Motor disorders (psychomotor disorders) include hypokinesia, dyskinesia, and hyperkinesia. At the core of these disorders are psychiatric disorders
Hypokinesia is manifested by slowing down and impoverishing movements up to the state of akinesia.
Stupor is a psychopathological disorder in the form of oppression of all aspects of mental activity, primarily motor skills, thinking and speech.
Depressive stupor (melancholic stupor) – the patient’s posture reflects a depressive affect. Usually, patients retain the ability to respond in the simplest way to appeals (head tilt, monosyllabic answers in a whisper). Some patients may spontaneously experience “heavy” sighs, moans. The duration of this condition can reach several weeks.
Hallucinatory stupor develops under the influence of hallucinatory experiences. General immobility is combined with various facial reactions (fear, delight, surprise, detachment). It occurs in intoxicating, organic psychoses, in schizophrenia. The duration of the condition is up to several hours.
Apathetic (asthenic) stupor – complete indifference and indifference to everything. Patients lie on their backs in a state of prostration. His expression is devastated. Patients are able to respond to simple questions, but often answer “I don’t know”. Patients often do not take care of themselves, do not follow the basic rules of hygiene.
Hysterical stupor usually occurs in individuals with hysterical character traits.
Often, the development of stupor is preceded by other hysterical disorders (hysterical paresis, pseudodementia, hysterical seizures, etc.). Patients do not answer questions, lie in bed all day. When trying to get out of bed, feed or change their clothes, patients resist.
Psychogenic stupor develops acutely due to the action of intense shock psychotrauma or psychotraumatic situation.
Motor immobility is combined with somato-vegetative disorders (tachycardia, sweating, fluctuations in blood pressure). There are no manifestations of negativism, as in a hysterical stupor, patients can be changed, fed. Consciousness is affectively narrowed.
Manic stupor is observed with a sharp transition from a depressive state to a manic one (and vice versa). It is characteristic that the patient, being in a state of immobility (sitting or standing), follows what is happening with one eye, keeping a cheerful expression on his face. It occurs in schizophrenia, manic depressive psychosis.
Alcoholic stupor is extremely rare. Patients passively submit to examination, medical procedures. Occurs in alcoholic oneiroid, Haine – Wernicke encephalopathy.