Consciousness is a set of knowledge and ideas of a person about the world around him and about himself. Disorientation (disorientation) – inability to properly understand the environment and one’s own personality.

Allopsychic (subject) disorientation

it manifests itself in the form of disorientation in time (they cannot name the current time of day, date, day of the week, month, year, time of year), in a place (they do not know where they are, or the place of stay is called incorrectly), in a situation (they cannot correctly assess the current situation, they incorrectly determine the surrounding people).

Autopsychic (personal) disorientation

it is manifested in the fact that patients incorrectly determine their age, name, uncritically assess their condition.

Signs of a violation of consciousness according to K. Jaspers:

1) detachment with a loss of clarity, distinctness of perception of the surrounding;

2) various types of disorientation (sometimes subject and personal), which are observed in isolation or together;

3) incoherent thinking, loss of its purposefulness;

4) complete or partial amnesia of the period of impaired consciousness, often real events are completely amnestied and fragmentary memories of delusional and hallucinatory experiences are preserved.

Obscurations of consciousness (quantitative changes in consciousness)

Stun is characterized by an increase in the threshold of excitability for all external stimuli. It is manifested by a delay in response to ordinary stimuli. Thinking is slowed down, difficult, the answers are monosyllabic, patients are not immediately able to comprehend the essence of the questions asked. The period of stun is partially or completely amnesic.

Obnubilation – “a veil on consciousness”, “cloudiness of consciousness”. Patients give the impression of being slightly intoxicated. Speech reactions are slowed down, mistakes in answers are frequent, absent-mindedness and inattention are noted.

Somnolence is a pathological drowsiness, a state of drowsiness. The patient spends most of the time lying down with his eyes closed. There is no spontaneous speech, but patients answer simple questions correctly, more complex ones are not comprehended.

Sopor. This disorder is based on a more significant increase in the threshold of excitability of the central nervous system. Speech contact is impossible, allopsychic orientation, as a rule, is completely absent. The period of confusion of consciousness is completely amnesic.

Coma is an unconscious state with a complete lack of responses. Pain sensitivity disappears first, then the pupillary, corneal and swallowing reflexes disappear. The last tendon reflexes disappear, and pathological ones appear.

Confusion of consciousness occurs with intoxication, metabolic disorders, traumatic brain injuries, brain tumors.