True hallucinations – the patient perceives hallucinatory images as part of the real world, the content of hallucinations is reflected in the behavior of the patient. Patients “shake off” imaginary insects, flee from monsters, talk to imaginary interlocutors, plug their ears, which can be an objective sign of their presence. Typical extraprice
False hallucinations – pseudo hallucinations – patients have no sense of objective reality. The patient perceives the images of the inner “I”. He clearly distinguishes between reality and hallucinatory image. Typical interoperable, voices sound “inside the head”, the images arise before the inner eye, or the source is out of reach of the senses (voices from space, telepathic communication, astral, etc.). Almost always there is a sense of being done, of violence.
Hypnagogic hallucinations are often visual hallucinations. Appear when closing the eyes at rest, often preceded by falling asleep, projected on a dark background.
Hypnapompic hallucinations are the same when you Wake up. These two types of hallucinations are often referred to as pseudo-hallucinations. Among this variety of hallucinations the following types of pathological representations are observed: visual (most often), verbal, tactile and combined.
Additionally, the following types of hallucinations are distinguished by the peculiarities of their occurrence.
Functional auditory hallucinations always appear only in actual sound stimulus. But unlike illusions, the real stimulus does not merge (is not replaced) with the pathological image, but coexists with it.
Reflex hallucinations are that correctly perceive real images immediately accompanied by the appearance of similar hallucinatory. For example, a patient hears a real phrase – and then a similar phrase begins to sound in his head.
Apperceptive hallucinations appear after the patient’s volitional effort. For example, patients with schizophrenia often “cause” their voices.
Charles bonnet hallucinations are observed when the peripheral part of the analyzer is damaged (blindness, deafness), as well as in sensory deprivation. Hallucinations always arise in the field affected or informative limited analyzer.
Psychogenic hallucinations occur under the influence of mental trauma or suggestion. Their content reflects a psychotraumatic situation or the essence of suggestion.
Psychosensory disorders – disorder of perception of size, shape, relative position of objects in space and (or) size, weight own body (disorders of body scheme).
Micropsia – reducing the size of visible objects.
Macropsia – increasing the size of visible objects.
Metamorphopsia – a violation of perception of space, shape and size.