Nosological area of modern psychiatry (from the Greek. nosos– “disease”) is common in our country and in some European countries. Based on the structure of this direction, all mental disorders are presented in the form of individual mental diseases, such as schizophrenia, manic-depressive, alcoholic and other psychoses.
It is believed that each disease is characterized by a variety of provoking and predisposing factors, a characteristic clinical picture and course, its etiopathogenesis, although there are different types and options, as well as the most likely prognosis. As a rule, all modern psychotropic drugs are effective in certain symptoms and syndromes, regardless of the disease in which they occur. Another rather serious disadvantage of this direction is the unclear situation of those mental disorders that do not fit into the clinical picture and the course of certain diseases. For example, according to some authors, disorders that occupy an intermediate position between schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychosis are special schizoaffective psychoses. According to others, these disorders should be included in schizophrenia, others interpret them as atypical forms of manic-depressive psychosis.
The founder of nosological directions is considered a well-known German psychiatrist E. Kraepelin.
The fundamental method of nosological direction is a detailed description of the clinical picture and the course of mental disorders, for which representatives of other directions call this direction descriptive psychiatry E. Krepelin. The main sections of modern psychiatry include: geriatric, adolescent and child psychiatry. They are areas of clinical psychiatry devoted to the characteristics of manifestations, course, treatment and prevention of mental disorders at the appropriate age.
Section psychiatry, called narcology, studies the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of drug addiction, substance abuse and alcoholism. In Western countries, doctors specializing in the field of addiction, called addicts (from the English word addiction – “addiction”).
Forensic psychiatry is engaged in the development of the foundations of forensic psychiatric examination, as well as works to prevent socially dangerous actions of mentally ill persons.
Social psychiatry studies the role of social factors in the emergence, course, prevention and treatment of mental illness and the organization of mental health care.
Transcultural psychiatry is a section of clinical psychiatry devoted to the comparative study of the characteristics of mental disorders and the level of mental health among different Nations and cultures.