The syndrome as a stage of the disease can be the same in various mental disorders, which is due to the adaptation of the body to the changed conditions of life (disease) and is achieved with the help of similar methods of response. This manifestation is observed in the form of symptoms and syndromes, which are complicated during the development of the disease, transforming from simple to complex or from small to large. In various mental diseases, the clinical picture changes in a certain sequence, i.e. there is a stereotype of development peculiar to each disease.
Allocate General pathological characteristic of the disease pattern of development and nosological stereotype that is typical of specific diseases.
General pathological stereotype of disease development suggests the presence of common patterns in their course. At the initial stages of progressive mental diseases often found neurotic disorders, and only then there are affective, delusional and psycho-organic, ie, with the progression of mental illness clinical picture steadily complicated and deepened.
For example, the formation of clinical manifestations of patients with schizophrenia is as follows: in the initial stages found disorders of a neurotic level, depressive, phobic, then there are mood disorders, delusional symptoms, complicated by hallucinations and pseudohallucinations, joins syndrome Kandinsky-clerambault, accompanied by paraphrenic delusions and resulting in apathetic dementia.
It should be noted that neither productive nor negative disorders have absolute nosological specificity and only extend to the genus of diseases or groups of diseases – psychogenic, endogenous and exogenous-organic.
In each of these groups of diseases have all the selected productive symptoms. For example: asthenic and neurotic syndromes characteristic of neuroses and neurotic development of the personality; affective, delusional, hallucinatory, motor for reactive psychosis, such as depression, paranoids, stuporous state, transient intellectual disorders for hysterical psychosis.
Both exogenous-organic and endogenous diseases have all of the above syndromes. There is also a certain preference, consisting in the highest frequency and severity of their for a particular group of diseases. Despite the General pathological regularities of the formation of a personality defect, negative mental disorders due to the disease have ambiguous trends in the groups of diseases.
As a rule, negative disorder is represented by the following syndromes: asthenic or tserebroastenicheskie change of personality, including psychopathic disorders, while psychogenic diseases manifested in the form patharkar-logical disorders.