Memory is a cognitive (Gnostic) function that allows you to accumulate perceived information. It is manifested in the form of abilities (functions) to record, hold and reproduce information (fixation, retention and reproduction).
Short-term memory is characterized by the fact that a large amount of constantly incoming information is imprinted in memory for a short time, after which this information is lost or stored in long-term memory.
Long-term memory is associated with selective preservation of the most important information for the subject for a long time.
RAM – its volume consists of up-to date information.
Mechanical memory is the ability to remember information as it is, without forming logical connections. This type of memory is not the basis of intelligence, so names, names, numbers are usually remembered.
Associative memory-memorization occurs with the formation of logical connections, analogies between individual concepts. When memorizing information, it is compared, generalized, analyzed, and systematized. Associative memory is better developed in men.
It is formed after 9-10 years as the basis of learning ability. The physiological decline of this type of memory is observed much later than the mechanical one.
According to the analyzers, memory is divided into visual, auditory, muscular (motor), olfactory, gustatory, tactile and emotional.
Most people have better visual memory. Mechanical memory is formed for a longer time, but it is also the most stable (for example, musicians during rehearsals form a mechanical memory for subtle, precise movements).
The function of memorization depends on the presence of a goal, emotional attitude, number of repetitions, degree of clarity of consciousness, concentration, time of day (individually).
According to the law of memory Ribot, it is easier to forget information without semantic content, for example, after watching a movie, individual names of characters are usually quickly forgotten, but the plot of events, the content is remembered for a long time. It is also easier to forget recent events, and long-past ones, if remembered, are saved longer. For example, patients with senile dementia do not remember what happened a minute ago, but they perfectly remember the events of their youth, long ago.
Memory (shaped) – memorizing and reproducing, use the images and not verbal characteristics.
Memory disorders by type are divided into quantitative-dysmnesia (hypermnesia, hypomnesia, amnesia) and qualitative – the so-called paramnesia (pseudo-reminiscences, confabulations, cryptomnesia).
Hypermnesia – the revival of the memory, improving the ability of Recalling long-forgotten, is not relevant to present events. This condition is combined with a weakening of the memory of current information.
Also, hypermnesia refers to a paradoxical increase in the ability to remember.