Dementia is an acquired form of dementia. Dementia, in contrast to oligophrenia, is always progradient, although the rate of decline in intelligence can vary greatly with different diseases. The final stage of the process of intellectual decline, leading to the complete collapse of mental activity, is called mental insanity.

Lacunar (focal, Gimnazicheskaya) de mentia. Intellectual decline is based on memory disorders. Also, in some cases, the level of comprehension and intellectual productivity decreases, and counting may be impaired, but there is still criticism of these violations, and there is awareness of the disease. The core of the personality is preserved for a long time. Global (complete, total, diffuse) dementia. Gross violations affect all mental functions (the core of the personality is destroyed). Criticism of their condition in such patients is completely absent. Often there is an aggravation of the lower instincts, gluttony, vagrancy, hoarding (accumulation of all sorts of rubbish).

Variants of dementia

Epileptic dementia. It is characterized by: the presence of rigidity, viscosity of all mental processes; speech disorders in the form of oligophasia, often there are diminutive forms of words (dressing gown, blanket, tablets, etc.); concentric memory loss (only events related to the person themselves are well remembered: insults, doctors ‘ appointments,).

Paralytic dementia. First described in syphilitic progressive paralysis. Dementia is total, accompanied by euphoria, complacency, lack of criticism, delusional ideas of greatness (often fantastic content).

Traumatic dementia. Occurs as a result of traumatic brain damage. Reduced intelligence is usually present in the form of a persistent stationary state, accompanied by a disorder of attention, stiffness of mental processes, irritability, malignity, in some cases, a disorder of drives.

Atherosclerotic (vascular) dementia develops with atherosclerosis of the brain vessels. Usually, lacunar violations persist for a long time. Criticism of their condition persists for a long time, characterized by weakness of heart, amnesic aphasia. Senile dementia begins with the appearance in patients of previously unusual rudeness, cruelty, avarice, disinhibition of drives.

Alzheimer’s disease begins at the age of 55-60 years. It is characterized by the presence of speech disorders, first there is logoclonia, which turns into motor aphasia.

Peak disease-pre-senile dementia Begins in 50-55 years. The atrophic process begins with the frontal lobes, so at the beginning of the disease, memory disorders are less pronounced, dementia is combined with behavioral disorders.