Somatized (masked, larvated) depression. The SOMATO-vegetative component is the leading one. The affect of longing is not pronounced and can often be regarded as a secondary phenomenon in response to somatic pathology.
The most common syndrome is “atrial melancholy”.
the second most common is complaints from the gastrointestinal tract.
Somatic disorders are usually more pronounced in the morning and respond well to antidepressant therapy.
Anxious (agitated) depressions. The most typical variant of involutional depression. The affect of longing is accompanied by the affects of anxiety and fear. Patients are in constant anticipation of impending disaster. The content of anxiety experiences is either completely non-objective (diffuse), or ordinary or inspired by conversations with others or the media.
There is no motor inhibition, on the contrary, there is a speech-motor excitement, patients wail, can not sit still. In extreme cases of such excitement, they speak of melancholy raptus: patients with screams, wailing, stereotypical alarm cries or screams rush along the corridor, rolling on the floor. At this point, they are extremely suicidal, can cause serious injuries (they hit their heads against the wall with a run, cause multiple deep stab wounds).
Patients require urgent medical aid (tisercinum, amitriptillin a single, tranquilizers, injectable).
Anaesthetic depression. Depressive affect is reduced. Patients complain of a complete, painful absence of any experiences. Often there is a sense of change in the environment – the world loses color, sounds are heard muffled, it often seems that time has slowed down (melancholic derealization).
Adynamic depression. The leading symptom is melancholy, experienced by the patient as indifference. In contrast to anesthetic depression, the patients do not suffer from this. Volitional activity is reduced, patients do not take care of themselves, are indifferent to their appearance. Typical complaints of lethargy, a sense of physical impotence.
Mania. Manic syndrome is characterized by an increased mood, an affect of joy and happiness, an accelerated pace of thinking with a characteristic distractibility and ease of Association, and an increased desire for activity.
When mania accelerates all mental and physical processes. Patients have animated facial expressions and pantomime, they look younger than their years.
Speech becomes loud, fast, emotional, often interspersed with poems and songs. When expressed arousal, speech may be noted excitedly, thoughts are not expressed to the end, because they very quickly replace each other. The surrounding world is perceived by the patient brighter, all the surrounding people seem happy, negative information is not perceived.
Facilitated the processes of memorization and reproduction.